Paper (White) Birch
The paper birch tree, usually referred to regionally as a white birch, is one of the more popular trees in the northwoods--distinct because of its white bark, which makes the trunk very distinctive in the northwoods forest.
Recently there has been considerable loss of paper birch in the area, due to a birch blight and other diseases. Foresters have pointed out that the birch in the area are nearing maturity, most having been started as a result of the fires that came through this area following the logging. Thus diseases that young healthy trees might withstand become fatal to the older birch trees that now dominate our birch population.
The tree is sun loving, and evidently fire is important to its seeding itself. Thus the area has not been conducive to new paper birch growth over the past half century. We will have to reluctantly accept the fact that we will see fewer and fewer of the forest favorites in years to come.
The tree has a rich history among Native Americans of the region. We think principally of birch bark canoes and baskets, but the bark of the three was used for a wide variety of things.
Mazina'igan, A Chronicle of the Lake Superior Ojibwe had an article by Sue Erickson, at staff writer, on its "Kid's Page" in the Spring/Summer 2010 issue entitled, "Wiigwaas/Birch Bark.." Interestingly it talks of removing the outer layer of bark from living birch trees without damaging the tree, a process with which I was previously unaware. And a child vacationing in the northwoods, I was always told to look for dean or downed birch to get the birch bark--good advice for those not skilled in proper techniques. The article also speaks of "maxinibaganjigan" or birch bark biting, an art form that creates designs of birch bark by biting it with your teeth. Birch BarkCharles P. ForbesJune 2, 2010
Comprehensive ReferencesErickson, Sue, Wiigwaas/Birch Bark, Mazina'igan, A Chronicle of the Lake Superior Ojibwe, Spring/Summer, 2010, p. 17., Odanah, 2010. View Full EntryMoser, et al., Paper birch (Wiigwaas) of the Lake States, 1980-2010, Gen. Tech. Rep. NRS-149. Newtown Square, PA: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 37 p., Newtown Square, PA, 2015. View Full EntryMoser, et al., Paper Birch (Wiigwaas) of the Lake States, 1980-2010, General Technical Report NRS-149, April 2015, Newtown Square, PA, 2015. View Full Entry
Major ReferencesGarske, Steve, Birch Decline, From: "Forests Under Threat: Highlights from GLIFWC's One-year Scientific Review," Mazina'igan, A Chronicle of the Lake Superior Ojibwe, Wintrer 2013-2014, Odanah, 2013. View Full EntryGarske, Steve, Tree of Life [Birch] in Trouble, Mazina'igan, Winter 2016-2017, pp. 1 ff., Odanah, 2016. View Full EntryMaday, Paula, Changing Birch Resource, Mazina'igan, A Chronicle of the Lake Superior Ojibwe, Summer, 2018, P. 10., Odanah, 2018. View Full EntryPanshin and de Zeeuw, Textbook of Wood Technology, McGraw-Hill Series in Forest Resources, New York, 1980. View Full Entry
Minor ReferencesAdaptation Forestry in Minnesota’s Northwoods, Fact Sheet, 2012, Arlington, VA, 2012. View Full EntryForests of the Future (Minnesota), Nature Conservance [Magazine] June/July, 2014, p. 18., Arlington, VA, 2014. View Full Entry
- Adaptation Forestry in Minnesota’s Northwoods
- Birch Decline
- Forests of the Future (Minnesota)
- Multi-agency Project Seeks Answers to Changing Birch Resource
- Paper Birch (Wiigwaas) of the Lake States, 1980-2010 With Special Emphasis on Bark Characteristics in the Territories Ceded in the Treaties of 1836, 1837, 1842, and 1854
- Paper birch (Wiigwaas) of the Lake States, 1980-2010; With Special Emphasis on Bark Characteristics in the Territories Ceded in the Treaties of 1836, 1837, 1842, and 1854.
- Textbook of Wood Technology: Structure, Identification, Properties and Uses of the Commercial Woods of the United States and Canada
- Tree of Life [Birch] in Trouble
- Wiigwaas/Birch Bark